Water-Energy-Food Nexus for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change Towards Sustainable Food Security, Efficient Use of Resources and Improved Livelihoods from Dikabeya Irrigation Scheme
Climate change and variability exacerbate the already limited availability of water resources in Botswana. These undesirable phenomena present significant challenges to the rural communities whose livelihoods are highly reliant on agricultural activities such as irrigated crop production. About 70% of rural households derive their livelihoods from agriculture through subsistence farming (Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food Security, 2012). These communities are therefore a significant constituent of those that are most vulnerable to climate change and variability related disasters. Amongst these bigger communities are the smallholder irrigation farmers whose livelihoods should benefit from the proposed project. The current proposal focuses on climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives that would improve operation, water use, energy efficiencies and ultimately increased production in Dikabeya irrigation scheme. Dikabeya project is located about 12 km northeast of Palapye and 25 km southwest of Topisi along the Palapye-Francistown highway (Department of Crop Production and Forestry, 2002). Water is pumped from Dikabeya dam using a single electric-powered pump with one backup pump. The water is then conveyed and stored in a 1,000 m3 open concrete tank near the irrigated land. From the storage tank, water is channeled through canals to sumps from which irrigation activities draw water. Generally, the current components of the Dikabeya irrigation scheme are evidently disintegrated and dilapidated, which clearly signifies water use inefficiencies in the whole system. This situation is more undesirable for a water-stressed country that is significantly affected by the effects of climate change. Waste of water resources in a pump-based water supply / distribution system is directly linked to inefficiency of energy used for pumping, which by extension greatly reduce productivity and have high amount of emissions. This project will incorporate a nexus approach to Water-Energy-Food security thereby improving water productivity and profitability of crop production using low carbon renewable energy. Sustainable interventions will target the operation of the system; pumping and energy use, water conveyance to the storage tank and canals, field irrigation and climate-smart agroecology practice. This holistic approach would synchronize three sectors / subsectors (water, energy and crop production) to reduce trade-offs and maximize synergies where possible, which would also enhance policy coherence. With lack of a systematic operation at Dikabeya irrigation scheme, the goal of this project is to develop decision support approaches and implement climate-smart interventions. The outcomes should be realized through needs-based research to benefit both the smallholder irrigation farmers and the Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food Security.
Botswana Institute for Technology Research and Innovation
Area Of Work:
Climate Change Mitigation
OP6 - Y5 (Jul 19-Jun 20)
Currently under execution
Project Characteristics and Results
All the relevant stakeholders will be engaged in the project and the levels of engagements will depend on the stages of development. Irrigation farmers, i.e., both men and women would be particularly empowered to make some decisions, which should strengthen their sense of ownership in the project. In this project, well-organized farmer associations would handle the construction, water allocation and maintenance issues to ensure efficiency and sustainability of the small-scale irrigation scheme.
Inovative Financial Mechanisms
In this project area, robust communication strategy with a combination of knowledge and information products on climate change mitigation and adaptation will be developed to reach targeted audiences such as the general communities, NGOs, scientific community, decision makers at different levels as well as the private sector. Therefore, in this manner, creating, sharing, using, introducing retention mechanisms and managing knowledge would make the best use of knowledge and information generated from the project.
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